The longest building in Europe and second in the world. Four times Modlin fortress was surrounded by foreign troops: if they are here, the Russians, three times Polish. A silent witness of many battles, sieges, destructions and disasters.
The first information about Modlin we find in a document from 1426, the year in the so-called Book court Zakroczymskiej. Modlin was named her "de Moglino". The following information we find in 1549, when Modlin appears to us as a village in which lived 32 kmieci, and her conduct was powiedzchnię 450 hectares Belonged to wóczas for festival of the Burgrave of Krakow Martin Wolski, who this year sold Modlin Queen Voucher.
In 1655 Charles X Gustav begins the implementation of their plans of development of the Baltic Sea basin, the Flood Swedish. The Swedes quickly occupied the most important city as great Poland, Pomerania and Mazovia. At this time, close to Modlin collects militia. In September the troops of the invaders is a New Yard and start to build the bridge to directly attack the Polish army.
In the same place will be built a fortress on the plan czteroramiennej stars, the so-called "Bugskansen". This first fortification was created on the site of the present Modlin - Swedes rated this place first.
After the defeat of the Poles Zakroczymiem the battle, the Swedes occupied the village of Moglino and opened a path in the direction Plantsci.
During the occupation the Russians had the intent to build a large fortress, and that it was strategically very important place. The project was developed by a engineer from Finland van Suchtelen. She had to have the name of the nearby town of Zakroczym and be a Bastion type with full fork length to the West fortami. However, due to subsequent events (Napoleon), the project was never implemented.
In 1807 was established the Duchy of Warsaw under French protection. On the website Modlin was originally supposed to be built a temporary fortress, serving as storage of food. Was supposed to be responsible for this General Prosper de Chasseloup-Laubat. Construction began in 1807 and go she walked slowly and reluctantly, in 1809, there were the troops of the Duchy of Warsaw after the battle of Raszynem.
A year later (1810) was expanded to a fortress. Wasn't supposed to be more than a temporary fortress magazynująca food - now the Modlin fortress were to become a true fortified camp. New designer and Builder remains Jean-mallet de Granville. In 1811, while working on warownią involved 19,000 people. However, not managed to finish the entire fortress before the war with Russia, but its modernization has been able to very advanced.
After Napoleon's defeat, Russian troops came under the Modlin fortress in 1813 in the amount of 36 000 soldiers. Modlin resisted longer than all the then existing castles: get it, it lasted almost 10 months because before December 1, 1813.
After defeating the army napoleońsskich to the West, to the fortress you enter the main leader of the armed forces of the newly formed Kingdom of Poland, brother of king Constantine. Twenty years nothing happened, until after the November Uprising and removal of the Polish Kingdom, the fortress began to expand as a extreme settlement of tsarist Russia.
The name of the fortress Modlin changed to "Nowogieorgiewsk". The new fortress was begun in 1832 under the leadership of engineer Ivan Ivanovich Dehna. Twelve years later, in front of the fortifications, after drugieej side of the river, was built a large and beautiful barn - the same one which, though in ruins, stands there today. After another twenty years (1864) to be completed barracks for 20,000 soldiers.
In the second part of the XIX century, the Modlin fortress was of great military importance, so during the January Uprising was attempted with the help of soldiers in it, to seize control of it. Was there, then approx. 70 000 rifles, 80 000 of the cargo of powder and 800 guns. Unfortunately, the operation failed and during the uprising, the fortress was in the possession of Russian soldiers.
In mid-July 1915 Germany join oblegania Modlin fortress from the West and North. After the capture of Warsaw from the South at fortress comes another group under the name of Westerhagen with a population of 80 000 soldiers with heavy weapons, fortresses. At this time, stationed at fortification 105 000 Russian soldiers, however, very poorly equipped (39 000 rifles, 1,000 old guns).
August 19 fall of the fortress, on the same day at 19:00, German troops conquered the citadel. Russian kapitulują, destroying fortresses and bridges on the Vistula and Narwii. During the fighting becomes also burned most of the city's New Yard.
During the II Republic of Poland little change was made in the Modlin fortress. Managed to fix the main fortifications, was built the shipyard, where they built a small court. Also created a power plant that supplied the castle and the New Mansion. The power plant worked until the mid-twentieth century, and her death stands to this day. It can be seen in the photos below.
During the SECOND world war, Modlin fortress was the defensive fortifications of the Poles. In September 1939, lived here for about. 15 000 soldiers. Strengthen the beat day longer from Warsaw. September 29 at 8:00 p.m., General Thommee signed the surrender of the fortress was not enough, as weapons, ammunition, food and medical care. The destruction was enormous: the barracks were badly damaged, burned hospital. Działobitnię in ruins, the bridges on the Vistula and Narwii, bombed the granary. During the Nazi occupation in the Modlin fortress was a centre for the training of recruits and the foothold of the army, and in 1943 was here division of the Wehrmacht. On 18 January 1945, the fortifications were captured by the red Army.
At present, the fortress in Modlin does not perform any more military functions. Most of the buildings are currently abandoned place. The army was divided the area of the fortifications on smaller portions and wyprzedaje them one after another. In 2012 was sold the barn a year later-private development company bought the main buildings of the fortress that is the citadel and the barracks. Here there are so-called Smart City: Europe's largest Convention center, two hotels, a shopping centre, University and Museum. The investment will cost approx 1.5 billion rubles.